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In a particular strain in the U. But despite the viruses causing so many infections, scientists still don't fully understand what causes outbreaks. Dr Margarita Pons-Salort, co-author of the research from the School of Public Health at Imperial said: "There are many different types of enteroviruses that infect humans. Some cause epidemics every year, while others cause epidemics every two or three years. However, until now we didn't know what determined the frequency of these outbreaks, or why some viruses seemed to cause large outbreaks in certain years.
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In the study, the team found that outbreaks of a given type of enterovirus were largely determined by the number of children born each year and the development of long-lasting immunity against that type following infection. Once a child is infected with a specific type of enterovirus, they usually develop immunity to further infections with that virus. The team found that after each outbreak there is a time lag -- from the end of the initial outbreak to a new pool of children being born who have not encountered the virus.
This second group of children then become infected, and a subsequent outbreak occurs. The team used a mathematical model to simulate these epidemic patterns for each of the 20 most common types of enterovirus. To build the model, they used Japanese enterovirus surveillance data. Japan keeps incredibly detailed information on enterovirus outbreaks, and the team used 14 years' worth of information to build the model from They then tested the model, and found that it was able to predict subsequent outbreaks in and for most types of enterovirus.
She continued: "This information could allow medical staff to prepare ahead of the outbreak.
Our model will also help design vaccination strategies i. For instance, it will allow us to calculate the proportion of children that should be vaccinated to avoid a new outbreak. The team are now testing their model on data from other countries, to ensure it can be applied to other regions around the world. Their work also suggested that certain types of enteroviruses can fundamentally change their 'appearance' and become more virulent, or more transmissible between people. The team are now working on methods to understand these changes. Materials provided by Imperial College London.
Original written by Kate Wighton. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. The use according to claim 3, wherein: said vaccine EV71 whole inactivated virus vaccines, subunit vaccines, live attenuated vaccine, the VLPs, genetically engineered vaccines, DNA vaccines.
CNB en. CNA en. Arita et al. An attenuated strain of enterovirus 71 belonging to genotype a showed a broad spectrum of antigenicity with attenuated neurovirulence in cynomolgus monkeys. Wang et al.
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Weaver et al. Koch et al.
Volume 105. Virus Structure and Function
Xu et al. Chen et al. A murine oral enterovirus 71 infection model with central nervous system involvement. Yu et al. Neutralizing antibody provided protection against enterovirus type 71 lethal challenge in neonatal mice. Previsani et al. Foo et al.
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Passive protection against lethal enterovirus 71 infection in newborn mice by neutralizing antibodies elicited by a synthetic peptide. Solomon et al. Ikegami et al.