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He has researched Virtual and Augmented Reality in relation to architecture since , leading research projects in the field. In this lecture you will hear about the talented people and innovative collaborative process that result in projects for which the Norwegian architecture firm has gained worldwide respect and acclaim. The practice is centered around a trans-disciplinary approach where multiple professions work together to explore differing perspectives on the conditions for each project. At the core of the design studio is a state-of-the-art modelling workshop equipped with 3D rapid prototyping capabilities and a large, programmable manufacturing robot.

Alongside traditional woodworking machines, these tools enable rapid prototyping to become an integral part of the design processes, and allow ideas to move seamlessly between analogue and digital worlds and back again. Workshops and tools can only go so far, since people drive the creative process. Each result is unique, has its own departure and each project has its own embedded logic in the spiral of creation.

While studying at AHO she had the opportunity to further her interests in geometry and computation. In Sofia had the pleasure to teach a couple of master studios with professor Neven Fuchs and with Takahuru Tezuka and then with Mark Lee Johnston Marklee as guest professors.

These are master research-based studios, addressing the relations between computational design, spatial and material organization, performance and locality. O projecto de S. No cruzamento das perspetivas 'the thinking hand' de James G. No estudo feito, a viagem que se propunha aos visitantes iniciava-se na Terra.

Descendo entre pedreiras cortadas, fazia-se o reconhecimento da crosta terrestre. Tem uma porta. Da porta de entrada veem-se umas escadas. Temos que as regar e falar-lhes coisas bonitas. Folgosa do A. Desde o ano de desenvolve pesquisas sobre equipamentos de ensino. A Reitoria U. Porto — estudantes de 1. The 20th Century Legacy. Challenges and opportunities". Anchieta 3, Chiado, Lisboa. Paio Canidelo, V. Gaia Programa Polis. O Encontro 'Geometria. O Encontro desdobra-se em dois momentos. Programa: eaaeporto.

Visiones Urbanas Visiones urbanas. Em , participou como professora assistente do arquiteto Guilherme Machado Vaz no workshop W. No mesmo ano, foi convidada para pintar oito quadros para o hotel 'Duas portas Townhouse' no Porto. Este terceiro ciclo, intitulado 'Aulas de Autor. No dia 25 de Maio vai ter lugar o evento paralelo Books and talks on Architecture.

Maria Alexandra Castro. Ciudad y formas urbanas. Sara Sucena. Arte e Arquitetura Portuguesa. Entrada gratuita. O Congresso em organiza-se em torno dos seguintes temas e sub-temas: 1. Formas 1. After examining the writings of Pero da Covilhan and listening to the story of Bartholomew Dias' experiences on the sea, he had the vessels constructed and he chose Vasco da Gama to lead this new attempt at the discovery of the sea route to India.

Amidst profound emotion, so eloquently described by Joao de Barros ' , on the part of the onlookers who were stirred to the depths at the thought of the dangers these brave men were about to confront to satisfy k i n g l y ambition, the expedition set sail from Portugal on the 8th. July It consisted of the ship " S. Raphael", tons, commanded by Paulo da Gama, having as pilot, Joao de Coimbra ; and the " Berrio " 2 , whose captain was Nicholau Coelho, and pilot, Pedro de Escobar, besides a transport ship w i t h reserves which sailed under Gongalo Nunes, the servant of Vasco da Gama.

Coelho of the first expedition was the " San Miguel". Voyage of Vasco da Gama, , written by Alvaro velho, one of the sailors, Vasco da Gama and his men arrived at Melinde, on the east coast of Africa, and received from the K i n g of that place a pilot 1 who accompanied them to Calicut where they arrived on the 20th. May 2 after a journey of ten months and eleven days, to India, the land of golden dreams, the l a n d of wealth and spices. Here their astonishment reached its height when they found people worshipping the image of a goddess, the V i r g i n Mary as they wrongly thought.

This confusion, combined w i t h their ignorance of the language, gave rise to many comical scenes. Pinheiro Chagas, Historia de Portugal, V o l. Vide the article of P. January, Oliveira Martins, in his " Historia de Portugal ", gives the date as 19th. Gabriel de Saldanha in his " HistrSria de Goa ", , give the date as 20th. May A q u y fez o capitam mor ora am e nos outros com elle, e nos nom emtramos dentro em esta capella porque seu costume he em n o m entrar nella senam homens certos que servem as Igrejas aos quaes elles chamam quafers. Estes quafers trazem huas linhas per cima.

And in the middle of the body of the church was a spire all of stone and it had a door in which a man could enter and a flight of steps leading to this door which was of bronze. And inside was a small image, which they said was of Our Lady, and in front of the principal door of the church, along the length of the wall, were onbro langadas e onbro he ho esquerdo e por debaixo do onbro do braco direito asy como trazem os Creligos darangelhos a estolla. Estes nos Iangaram agoa benta; dam hft barro braneo que os Xrstaos desta terra acostumam de poor em as testas o nos peitos e derredor do pescoco e em os buchos dos bracos.

Toda esta cerimonia fezeram ao capitam e Ihe davam aquelle barro que posese, e o capitam o tomou e o deu a guardar dando a emtemder que depois o pomria. E outros mujtos santos estavam penhados pellag parredes da Igreja os quaes tinham diademoas, e a sua pimtura hera em diversa maneira porque os dentes eram tarn grandes que sayam da boca hua poiegada, e cada sauto tinha quatro e cinco bracos, e abaixo desta Igreja estava hu gram tanque lavrado de quantaria asy como outros mujtos que pello camjnho tiuhamos visto. Published by Diogo Kopke and Dr. Ant6nio da Costa Paiva, Porto, From the manuscript which is in the Bibliotheca of Porto, formerly in the collection of manuscripts belonging to the Monastery of Santa Cruz of Coimbra h 1 Apparently this was the Dwaja Stamba of the Hindu temples, which is used for cocoanut sacrifices.

Sometimes the pillar has receptacles for lamps. The Garuda is a legendary bird which is supposed to have released Rama from make bondage. Here the Chief Captain prayed and we also with him. And we did not enter inside the chapel, because it was their custom that only certain men should enter who were in the service of the church, and whom they called Quafers 1.

These Quafers wore some twisted threads over their left shoulder ' and under the shoulder of the right arm, just as the priests of the Gospel wear the stole. They sprinkled us with holy water and gave us a white clay 2 which the Christians of this country use to put on their foreheads and on their chests, around their necks and in the crevices of their arms. All these ceremonies they performed to the Captain, and gave him that clay which he took and kept, making them understand that he would use it afterwards.

And many of the saints were painted in different ways and their teeth were so great that they protruded about an inch from their mouths. And each saint had four or five arms, and below the church there was a large tank made in masonry, just like many others which we had seen on our way," After a stay of some months, Vasco da Gama. August , bringing with him thirteen Indians and one Arab 4 from Calicut and these were the first Indians to be taken to Portugal as the authentic proof that the expedition had attained its object. Evidently here " qafers " refers to Brahmans.

PinheiroChagas, Histeria de Portugal, Vol.

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I, Ch. Jaime Cortezao : " Good chance! Good luck! Many rubies! Many emeralds! We are in the land of spices, of precious stones, of the greatest riches that there are in the w o r l d J Thus cried Moncaide on the r i g h t of Gama at the entrance to Calicut.

That cry of t r i u m p h , those t h r i l l s of astonishment and emotion w h i c h drew tears f r o m the eyes of the sailors, they carried i n their hearts t i l l they anchored in Lisbon, and communicated them to the entire nation. At once in the c i t y they had bull-fights and sports and the bells rang all day in sign of j o y ".

The picture of I n d i a and her riches, transmitted through the first voyagers w h o were dazzled by the unfamiliar sights, fired their imaginations. A n d , in the letter of D o m Manuel to the K i n g of Castile, g i v i n g h i m the news of the discovery, the t r i u m p h and the j o y of the K i n g , his delight and astonishment overflow in each phrase : b What a torrent of stones has I n d i a! She has rubies! Emeralds absolutely royal! A n d pearls of very great value! Spinel rubies and besides carbuncles, Amethysts, turquoises and chrysolites, Sapphires, cats-eyes, brilliants of the richest k i n d , A n d many others whose names are given.

Port, do Brazil, p. They have now brought a quantity of those spices, such asf cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, pepper, and other kinds of spices and even the woods and leaves of the same, and very fine precious stones of different kinds, as for instance, rubies and others. They even found land where there are gold mines of whose products and of the said spices and precious stones, they did not carry away as much as they could have, because they had not taken with them merchandise enough to buy more.

And because we know that yonr Highnesses are bound to receive great pleasure and satisfaction from this, we thought it good to give you news of this' Your Highnesses may. The first chroniclers and historiographers relate this fact. Prom that atmosphere, which the nation breathed, were to issue forth the imposing figures of the first captains of India, men of the temperament of Pacheco, of Dom Francisco de Almeida, or of Albuquerque. Besides we hope in our Lord that the principal trade of which all the Moorish people of those parts took advantage and carried on themselves without the aid of other persons or races, will be completely changed by our agreements with the natives and by the ships of our Kingdom, so that henceforth all the Christians of this part may be largely provided with the said spices and precious stones, which, with the help of the same God, W h o in His mercy ordains it so, will rouse in us greater resolution and determination to employ ourselves more fervently for His service in the war against the Moors in our conquests in these parts, in which Your Highnesses have so much interest, and we so much devotion.

Our Lord giving us the completion of our work regarding the investigation of Ethiopia and India, other lands and the 'Oriental Islands. Your Most Reverend Paternity will know that those persons, who have just now returned from the said investigation and discoveries, have been, among other ports of. Muyto altos, muito excellentes Principes y muito poderosos Senhores, Nosso Senhor Deos haja sempre vossas pessoas e Reales Estados em sua santa guarda. Escrita em Lisboa' de julho The K i n g considers himself Christian as well as the greater part of the people One finds there all the year round cucumbers, oranges, lemons and citrons There are great fleets The island of Taprobana, w h i c h they call Ceilam Ceylon , is leagues from Quolicut.

Our men brought five or six Indians from Quolicut, We, as soon as we heard this news, at once gave orders for general processions to be made in all our kingdoms, giving many thanks to Our L o r d ; and H i s Holiness and Your Reverence must show publicly not less joy and give great praises to God' Besides, although we hold very amply by apostolic donations the lordship and dominion of all we have found so that i t appears little necessary, yet, because i t w i l l please us much we ask you affectionately that, after having placed our letters before the H o l y Father and the College of Cardinals , you w i l l be pleased speaking of this as coming from yourself, at least as a proof of some fresh satisfaction for us, in something so new and of such great and novel merit, to obtain from His Holiness a renewed approval and grant thereof, in the form w h i c h seems best to Your Most Reverend Paternity, whom may Our L o r d keep as you desire.

W r i t t e n in Lisbon, the 28th, August Padre que como irmao m u i t o amamos. Nos, D. Santidade escrevemos, gaberi V. Rma- P. O rei setem por christao e a maior parte do seu povo A ilha Taprobana, a qual Ia se chama Ceilam,. Maria of Belem and the " Jeronymos '', a noble resting place for the remains of Luiz de Camoes and the tomb of Dam Sebastiao, the hero of the African expedition.

In , the year immediately after the return of Vasco da Gama, Pedro Alvares Cabral 1 was given the command of an expedition to CaliDominion of the Por-' cut. The expedition consisted of tuguese in India. Trouxeram os nossos 5 ou 6 indiog do Quolicut.. Nos tanto que esta nova soubemos, logo mandamos fazer geraes proeissoes per todos os nossos reynos dando muitas gracas a nosso Senhor e deve S. Santidade e V. Outrosy coma quer que por doacoes apostolicas mui largamente tenhamos o senhorio e dominio de todo o por nos achado, de guisa que pouco necessario pareca mais nada, porem muito nos pracera e affectuosa' mente vollo rogamos que, depois de dadas nossas cartas ao Santo.

Padre e ao collegio, queiraes, fallando n'isso como de vosso, ao menos por mostra de algum novo contentamentoparan6s emcousa tao nova e de tao grande e novo merecimento, aver de S. Santidade nova approvacjao e outorja dello, na melhor forma que parecer a V. Vicente, Liv. Indians w i t h the magnificence of this second expedition, in order to obtain the greatest prestige possible in the seas of India. Cabral left Lisbon with the avowed purpose of going to India, but by chance or intention, l he went further west and reached in a place called Vera Cruz, w h i c h is to-day in the republic of Brazil.

A t h i r d fleet of four ships followed in , under Joao da Nova, and a fourth, consisting of twenty ships, sailed in w i t h Vasco da Gama as Admiral. Affonso d ' A l b u querque conceived the magnificent plan of an oriental Portuguese empire. He extended the dominions in India and in other parts of Asia. He took Goa in , thus securing Malabar ; his conquest of Ormuz gave h i m the key to Persia and Central Asia, while the possession of Malacca secured for h i m the commerce w i t h the E x treme Orient, and thus he founded the Lusitanian E m pire i n India.

Barreto de Rezende, Sec. The island of Angediva is situated to the south of Goa in Latitude N. Dabul was taken by h i m in revenge for the death of his son. He also took D i u after a bloody battle. The navigation and conquests of the Portuguese in the East increased the number of maritime discoveries day by day. In , Joao H o m e m Discoveries. Jorge and S. Joao, off the coast of South Africa. In the same year, Tristao da Cunha found the islands of his own name and Ruy Pereira Coutinho touched the island of Madagascar. In , Lourenco de Almeida reached the Maldive Islands ; the next year, Tristao da Cunha found the island of Ascen ao, not to be confused w i t h the one l discovered in by Joao de Nova near the coast of Brazil.

Diogo Lopes de Sequeira occupied Malacca in , and explored the island of Sumatra ; three years later, Francisco Serrao discovered the Moluccas ; in or , the island of Bourbon or Reunion, east of Mogambique, was claimed for the Portuguese crown by Pedro de Mascarenhas. In , during the government of Lopo Soares de Albergaria, Fernao Peres de Andrade constructed a fortress in Pacem, went to Cochin-China and Canton, made peace w i t h the Mandarins and established relations between Portugal and China. E Ascensao. March to August, being already on the south side, they found an island to which they gave the name of Conception.

It is Ascension. In , the way to Japan was discovered by Antonio da Motta; Portuguese colonies were established in in Formosa, and in , the Portuguese obtained the territory of the island of Macao in recompense for aid given to China against pirates 1. Such was the rapid extension overseas of the Portuguese power which exercised lasting influence on her art, literature and social life. As the object of Portugal was not only conquest but conversion, her missionaries accompanied the troops wherever they went and Goa became the metropolis of Christian Religious Influence.

This work was accomplished by the Portuguese missionaries, not always by persuasive measures but many times by violence, pardonable when judged according to their times as all historical facts cannot be criticised only according to our light and actual experience. It was thus natural that the fleet should be followed by an army of missionaries and in those times it was a common thing to find the Cross and the Sword in permanent alliance with the same objectives of conquering lands for the King of Portugal and winning souls for the King of Heaven.

The influence of religion in bringing about closer relations between the West and the East, was by no means small.

India Portugueza

Amongst numerous missionaries who took up this role, the most important without doubt, was St. Francis Xavier, , 2. Francisco Xavier, Apostolo doOriente. Having laboured as a missionary from India to Japan, he sleeps to-day in the Convent of B o m Jesus in O l d Goa, where his body is venerated by thousands of Orientals, both Catholics and non-Christians.

The engrossing desire of the first discoverers and conquerors was to expand the temporal and spiritual confines of the kingdom of Portugal and to unite the East and West w i t h ties of affection. The captains and viceroys followed in the footsteps of the great Affonso de Albuquerque, who used to address as u daughters " the H i n d u and Muslim women of Goa w h o m he converted and married to his soldiers and sailors. The mercantile monopoly remained in the hands of the Portuguese till , before which time there were no European competitors. Their commercial programme obliged the creation of factories along the coasts under the jurisdiction of the respective captains and governors.

The colonial institutions invented by the Portuguese and reproduced by the nations which followed them in the East, were the means of the colonization of the Asiatic Islands, Africa and Brazil. The influence which the Portuguese had in India, resulted from several causes: viz, their direct government over the people ; their commercial intercourse w i t h the different races ; the political influence which they exercised in their relations w i t h the various Indian potentates ; the nearness of the Portuguese possessions to the Indian States, and the religious propaganda w h i c h they carried out.

The colossal fortresses which were scattered all over the East, massive monuments of Portuguese glory, and the Portuguese surnames which may be heard in all parts of India, testify eloquently to Portugal's meteoric passage, which, although ephemeral in various parts, exercised powerful influence and left lasting traces on the whole of India. As it is not within the scope of this work to treat of Portuguese history at length, for that would require several volumes, it is enough to say that the dominion of the Portuguese in the East was of short duration.

H e r imperial sway was never firmly established. Of the immense empire that was founded, as if by enchantment, by the strong arm of the terrible Albuquerque and the able Castro, now only a few fragments remain. This ing the Classic Epoch. The fall of Constantinople had caused the exodus of the Greek scholars of that place into Italy, where they carried the treasures of their learning' The invention of gunpowder which changed the politics of the European l See '' Tratados e concertos de Pazes ", by J. Biker, pages 18 to See also I. Gracias, " Notes " to Saldanha's "Historia de Goa" about this subject.

From the classic lands of Italy came educationists as well as religious teachers, and besides the clerical school a secular one was established. It was for Portugal the golden age of learning. As we have previously noted, in Portuguese literature, we find that the early writers did not deal with subjects relating to India, but, after the discovery of the way to India by sea and the establishment of Portuguese rule in the East, familiarity with the East, especially India, produced a number of brilliant writers, both in poetry and prose, who show intimate and enthusiastic knowledge of the country.

The riches w h i c h had come from the overflowing Orient, were eclipsed by the more precious treasures of learning w h i c h embellished the kingdom of D o m Manuel and his successors. It was enough to have produced an epic poet like Camoes, a dramatist such as G i l Vicente or a historian like Goes, to make any epoch glorious.

The superhuman deeds of bravery accomplished by those intrepid early explorers, aroused the loudest enthusiasm and admiration among Poets of the the writers, whose minds had Sixteenth Century, CamSea already been developed by their 1 5 2 4? Of his b i r t h we know very little. There is even some doubt about the date, though most chroniclers give it as , There is equal dispute over his birthplace, some saying it, among other places, to be Coimbra, but the majority accept Lisbon as the most probable.

H i s early education was obtained in Coimbra, and, judging by his mastery of the classics and his familiarity w i t h the literatures of Spain, Italy and his own country, it must have been a very thorough one. As a youth he was at the court of D o m Joao I I I and then his life began to be so full of sorrow and adventure.

There he fell in love w i t h a lady-in-waiting to the Queen, called Catarina de Ataide, who had accompanied the Queen from Spain, and this lady has been immortalised in his poem " N a t d r c i a " ; but his marriage w i t h her was prevented by his banishment from the c o u r t His parting w i t h her is commemorated in his sonnet beginning: " Aquella triste e leda madrugada. In he enlisted as a private soldier for Africa, where he fought during two years, having the misfortune to lose his right eye in an encounter w i t h the Arabs. Returning to Lisbon, he. Elizabeth Barrett Browning sees in her " Vision of Poets ": Camoens, with that look he had Compelling India's genius sad From the wave through the Lusiad ; The murmurs of the storm-cape ocean Indrawn in vibrative emotion Along the verse.

A India portugueza : conferencia feita em 16 de março de (eBook, ) [dikujumesu.gq]

His prolonged stay there has made his wonderful poem so valuable ; for he saw w i t h his own eyes the places which he described in his Cantos, often having to lay aside the pen, for he had begun his great poem already in or 2 , to take up the sword. He arrived in Goa in September , after a severe storm encountered off the Cape of Good Hope, an account of w h i c h is found in his elegy, " O poeta Simonides fallando.

Thence he proceeded to the Molucca Islands, returned to Malacca in , and went to Macao. There he wrote the greater part of his c Lusiadas ', so tradition says. On his return to Goa, he was shipwrecked off the coast of Cambodia, south of Annam, in the China Sea; he saved his precious work by swimming to shore w i t h it in his mouth :.

Canto X, Est. This incident reminds us of a similar occurrence in the life of Julius Caesar so graphically told by Plutarch, when he saved his manuscripts in an engagement off Pharos, by holding them in one hand and swimming w i t h the other. The story of the succeeding years is not known. We know that he went to Mozambique and returned to Lisbon in in company w i t h Diogo de Couto w h o m he met on the way and who mentions the meeting in his " D e c a d a " V I I I , Chapter His o l d mother alone remained to take a natural pride in the poem he had written.

It was dedicated to D o m Sebastiao, the youthful sovereign of Portugal. The battle of Alcacer Qebir foreshadowed the domination of Spain over Portugal. Camoes, being a true patriot, was most distressed by this, " as beseemed the aged soldier whose sword had often vindicated his country's honour ", and he wrote to his friend, D o m Francisco de A l m e i d a : " At last my life w i l l end and all w i l l see that I was so l Translation from " Os Lusiadas ".

Camoes is just as perfect in his lyrical poems as he is in his great epic. Wordsworth in his immortal " Sonnet on the Sonnet ", refers to Camoes' power in the well-known lines : " W i t h it CamSes soothed an exile's grief. His celebrated " Redondilhas ", " Babel e Siao" were probably composed during his voyages from Goa to Malacca.

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The seventy-five verses of these "Redondilhas" are the expression of Camoes5 grief at his exile, as the following selection shows : " Que se vida tSLo pequena S'accrescenta em terra estranha ; E se amor assi o ordena Razao e que cansa a penna De escrever pena tamanha, Porem, se para assentar O que sente o coraf ao, A penna ja em cansar, N5o canse para voar A mernoria em Siao. B u t if my pen should be tired of w r i t i n g what my heart feels, let my memory not tire to fly to Sion. Filodemo", w h i c h was written to celebrate the occasion of the investiture of Francisco Barreto as Governor of Goa, contains allusions to Goa and the East.

H i s " Disparates de I n d i a n or " T h e Vagaries of India", satirises the evils of the administration of the Governor Francisco Barreto, whose name unfortunately became celebrated owing to his persecution of Camoes, w h o m he sent into exile for having written the satire. This is how one of the biographers of Camoes narrates the facts: " In order to celebrate afterwards the succession of the new Governor, Francisco Barreto carried out in Goa grand feasts, games and other amusements, in w h i c h debauchery and intemperance reigned supreme ; and even some of the most distinguished citizens were not loth to take part in such a repulsive show.

Camoes, who was a severe critic of such vices and indignant at such shameless and scandalous proceedings, wrote a satire in which he mercilessly scourged those who joined in the orgies. The following lines from the ''Lament" show how his passionate temperament was influenced. Leoni, "Camoes e Os Lusiadas", p. Eu nunca vi rosa Em suaves molhos, Que para meus olhos Fosse mais formosa.

Rosto singular, Olhos socegados, Pretos e cansados, Mas nao de matar. Uma gra? Present a serena, Que a tormenta amansa ; Nella emfim descansa Toda minha pena. Esta 6 a captiva Que me tern captivo : 6 pois nella vivo, E forta que viva. T h a t captive, who has made me captive, for in her I live, does not now care that I should live.

I never saw a rose in its soft bunch of leaves, that seemed more beautiful to my eyes. Neither the flowers of the field nor the stars of heaven seem to me as beautiful as my love. Uncommon face, quiet eyes, black and weary, but not weary of killing. But containing a lively charm to be the mistress of him whose slave she is- Her black hair makes fickle people change their opinion that light hair is beautiful. The blackness of Loveso sweet is her facethat snow swears to her it will exchange its colour for hers.

She is smiling suavity accompanied by good sense. Indeed, she appears a foreign beauty, but not barbarian. She has a serene presence which stills my passions, and in the end takes away all my sorrow. This is the captive that has enslaved me, and since in her I live it is necessary that she should live. The poem " Os Lusiadas " is the epic poem 1 Dr.

He referred me to his o w n book, his edition of " Os Lusiadas 11 entitled, " Re-impressao Facsimilada da verdadeira primeira edi ao dos Lusiadas de ", preceded by an introduction and followed by a criticism by the said author as w e l l as l4 Os Lusiadas de L u i s de Camoes," E d i ao Nacional Camoneana, B. Jose Maria Rodrigues. E para Ihe dar todo o realce, Camoes so o empregou no frontispicio da Epopeia. O artigo tamb6m pertence ao titulo, de que na grafia se nao deve desligar.

Intoleraveis sao as alteracoes que ja se tern f eito para " Lusiada " e " As Lusiadas ". The word " Lusiadas " is authorised by Andre de Resende, who derived it from u Luso ",in imitation of Virgil who formed the patronymic Aeneades from Aeneas The Lusiadas are the descendants of Luso, the Lusos, the Lusitanos, the Portuguese.

And m order to give it all its value, CamSes used it only in the frontispiece of the " Epopeia ,f The article os also belongs to the title, and should not be separated from it. The alterations which have already been made from " Os Lusiadas to " Lusiada " and " As Lusiadas " are intolerable.

X L V , Notas filologicas, historicas, geograficas, e cosmol6gicag. Jose Maria Kodrigues put it, " todos os disparates que teem f eito os traductores," all the nonsense which the translators have made, for example : P. La Lusiade du Camoens by M. Duperron de Castera a Paris. Duperron de Castera P. La Lusiade de Louis Camoens.

La Lusiade de Camoens by M. The great authorities say that the word was nerer feminine at a l l. T h e apparent hero of the poem is Vasco da Gama ; the real hero is the spirit of the nation. Brave himself, the bravery of others attracted Camoes and brought forth from h i m undying strains of music. He lives to inspire every Portuguese in his wonderful lines, so full of art, beauty and pathos. T i l l the last strophe, Camoes is as thoroughly conversant w i t h his subject as he is sublime in his music and is as ardent in genius and as vigorous is his phrases as he is in his daring, heedless bravery.

The disasters and misfortunes into w h i c h fate led h i m wandering " Com pobreza aborrecida Por hospicios alheios degradado " With hateful poverty Exiled to distant inns Cante V I I. The poem is not only the t h r i l l i n g story of the realisation of the dreams of all Europe in the discovery of the way to the land of India, shrouded in mystery and x Cf.

It is also the description of the founding of a vast empire in the romantic East. LX : " Este, por haver fama sempiterna, Mais do que tentar pode homem terreno Tentou, que foi buscar da roxa Aurora Os terminos, que eu vou buscando agora. But as thro' gathered shades of night eterne Afonso sped to realms of endless joy, The Prince who rose to rule our realm in turn Was John the Second and the thirteenth Roy.

This, never-dying glory's meed to earn, Higher than ventured mortal man to fly, Ventured, who sought those bounds of kindly morn, Which I go seeking, this my voyage-bourne. Richard Burton's Translation, Vol. A n d about the departure of the great explorers, Pero de Covilhan and Affonso de Paiva in obedience to the King's behest, he says: u Man da seus mensageiros " Selected messengers his w i l l o b e y , and then the countries through w h i c h they pass are described : " Entram no estreito Persico, onde dura Da confusa Babel inda a memoria ; Ali co'o Tigre o Euphrates se mistura, Que as fontes onde nascem tern por gloria.

Dali vao em demanda da agua pura, Que causa inda sera de larga historia, Do Indo, pelas ondas do Oceano, Onde nao se atreveo passar Trajano. Canto I V , Est. Through Spain and France they hold their vent'rous sway.

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Through Italy they reach the port that gave T h e fair Parthenope an honoured grave ; T h a t shore which oft has felt the servile chain. But now smiles happy in the care of Spain. Now, from the port the brave advent'rers bore, And cut the billows of the Rhodian shore ; N o w reach the strand where noble Pompey bled ; And now, repair'd with rest, to Memphis sped ; And now, ascending by the vale of Nile, Whose waves pour fatness o'er the grateful soil , Through Ethiopia's peaceful dales they stray, Where their glad eyes Messiah's rites survey ; And now they pass the famed Arabian flood, Whose waves of old in wondrous ridges stood,.

W h i l e Israel's favoured race the sable bottom trod ; Behind them, glistening to the morning skies, T h e mountains nam'd from Ishmael's offspring rise ; Now, round their steps the blest Arabia spreads Her groves of odour, and her balmy meads ; And every breast, inspired with glee, inhales The grateful fragrance of Sabaeas gales ; Now f past the Persian gulf their route ascends Where Tigris' wave with proud Euphrates blends ; Illustrious streams, where still the native shows Where Babel's haughty tower unfinish'd rose ; From thence, through climes unknown, their daring course Beyond where Trajan forced his sway, they force.

Carmanian hordes, and Indian tribes they saw, And many a barb'rous rite, and many a law Their search explored ; but to their native shore Enriched with knowledge, they return'd no more. Tramslation by Mickle. From the description, one would be inclined to conclude that both travellers, Afifonso de Paiva and Pero da Covilhan, had travelled together continuously1; but according to Die Kirche der Thomas Christen, , p. Covilhan then returned to Ethiopia, where he was kept a prisoner.

He was alive in See Conde de Ficalho, viagens ic Per de Covilhan. The poem contains the vision of the King Dom Manoel, when he sees the Indus and the sacred Ganges, which addressed him : " Eu sou o illustre Ganges, que na terra Celeste tenho o berpo verdadeiro ; Est outro e o Indo, Rei, que nesta serra Que ves, seu nascimento tern primeiro. Custar-te-hemos com tudo dura guerra, Mas, insistindo tu, por derradeiro, Com nao vistas victorias, sem receio, A quantas gentes ves poras o f reio.

The journey having been decided upon, Vasco da Gama was chosen to lead the way ; " Eu vos tenho entre todos escolhido Para huma empresa, qual a vos se deve ; Trabalho illustre, duro e esclarecido, O que eu sei que por mi vos sera leve. Dread as it is, yet light the task shall be To you, my Gama, as performed for me. Translation by Mickie. Comendo alegremente perguntavam Pela Arabica lingua, donde vinham? Quern erao? Ou que partes do mar corrido tinhao?


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Os fortes Lusitanos lhes tomavam As discretas respostas que convinham, 'Os Portugueses somos de Occidente Imos buscando as terras do Oricnte. A feasting cheery all the guests inquired in Arab language, whence had come their hosts? W h o were they? Where their land?


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