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  1. NSERC – List of Evaluation Groups and Research Topics
  2. Geophysical Sciences
  3. Numerical Computation of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Electrical Engineering)
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Splitting in a larger number of Rx-elements, e. For head sized volume transmit arrays at ultra-high field, 16 coil elements arranged in 2x8 is beneficial than eight coils arranged in 2x4 configuration. The aim of this project is to develop and qualify an interface to connect a channel transmit array to an 8-channel parallel transmit system. The interface module consists of eight capacitive loaded miniaturized Wilkinson power splitters. Each pTx channel drives two coil elements through the interface module. The transmit array performance closely followed the predicted results. Parallel transmission pTX is a critical technology to improve B1 uniformity and control RF power deposition at high field.

Typically, optimization of the pTX excitation is based on prior information from electromagnetic field simulations and MRI. In this work we explored a way to support pTX by obtaining real-time B1 information from the RF current sensor integrated in an on-coil current-source amplifier with envelope feedback. This information was digitally encoded through low power analog-digital converters to be sent optically to a controller located outside the MRI room.

Real-time analysis of these signals can be used for RF-safety monitoring and quality control. To achieve accurate and stable RF power measurements in MR systems, a high directivity coupler is proposed and compared to a conventional coupler, and a compact MR-compatible on-coil power monitor with the high directivity coupler was built and tested both on the test bench and 7T MRI Siemens Magnetom, Erlangen, DE. A digital RF power amplifier is designed for 1. The amplifier achieves higher efficiency, embodies amplifier with the coil and can be digitally controlled with an FPGA.

An output power of Mustafa Cavusoglu 1 , Benjamin E. Dietrich 1 , David O. Brunner 1 , and Klaas P. Advanced schemes of parallel excitation are based on the exact knowledge of the magnetic field dynamics inside the MR scanner and require highly accurate interplay between several RF channels and gradient waveforms. Further the transmit channels need to be highly synchronized and timed among themselves as well as with the gradient system.

We present an optimization framework for spatially selective and sparse-spokes pulse design in parallel RF transmission at 7T based on magnetic field monitoring to measure the temporal evolution of gradient magnetic fields and the multi-channel RF excitation pulses on equal time basis, fully concurrently and at full power. Cameron M. Hough 1 , Russell L. In this work we investigate the noise temperature variations of RF preamplifiers when exposed to an external magnetic field.

Models for field-effect transistors and bipolar-junction transistors were applied and fitted to measured noise temperature data. A localized detection coil with an integrated negative resistance amplifier has been constructed to enhance the local sensitivity of inductively coupled receive coils. When the transistor is grounded on its drain, the feedback effect transforms capacitive impedance on the source into negative resistance on the gate, thus increasing the signal current in the LC resonator.

Such a detection scheme enables high resolution animal imaging at 3T with small active coils inductively coupled to larger clinical coils using the standard signal interface.

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Luijten 1 , Cecilia Possanzini 2 , and Dennis W. MRI systems can be equipped with digital on coil receivers, providing increased SNR when requiring high dynamic range, and unlimited number of receiver channels. Higher field systems like 7T may benefit from both features as SNR increases and thus dynamic range , and higher acceleration factors can be obtained at contained geometry factors thus benefit from more receiver channels. In this work we demonstrate that using under-sampling combined with Surface Acoustic Wave filters can convert 1.

Overhauser-enhanced MRI OMRI is an electron-proton double resonance imaging technique of much interest due to its ability to detect the concentration and distribution of free radicals. Tracking of exogenous free radicals with OMRI in vivo has enabled the development of oxymetry probes and the imaging of redox reactions. Branislav M. Notaros 1 , Milan M. Ilic 1 , Alexey A. Tonyushkin 2 , Nada J. The novel RF coil has advantages over patch antennas and other existing TW excitation methods and is simultaneously a solution for a whole-body RF coil at high fields.

A new actuator for MRE is introduced based on transient air pressure waves produced by a fast switching valve and an air-filled cylindrical bellow inside the magnet. This concept provides an economic setup of interference-free, powerful and easy-to-use drivers for potential applications of MRE in obese patients, at low gradient systems and for remote actuation.

The feasibility of the new driver is demonstrated by MRE of the brain and remote excitation from the upper thoracic spine. The combination of low drive frequencies and high resolution elasticity reconstruction provided viscoelastic parameter maps in agreement to previous work on cerebral MRE. Edwin G. A possible solution could be the inclusion of time-of-flight TOF information into the PET image reconstruction algorithm. A total 46 clinical PET image artifacts and 21 simulated artifacts were being evaluated.

Signal-to-noise maps and spatial resolution were evaluated. Whereas the coil was designed to minimize the attenuation of PET photons, CT-based attenuation correction of the coil was performed and PET quantification was evaluated in phantom experiments. Positron Emission Mammography PEM is a dedicated breast imaging systems performing breast imaging under gentle compression. PEM exhibited a higher spatial resolution than PET due to the good immobilization of the breast and its small interdetector distance.

However, its data acquisition scheme results in a poor axial spatial resolution. The performance of the system is validated on a breast phantom. In conventional whole body MR RF transmit coils, various RF components such as diodes, capacitors, inductors, cables etc. We present design and performance for the resulting antenna as implemented in our 3.

This method is based on the beam-deflection theory. If using some supports or bolts on the split gradient assembly, by adjusting the positions of the supports or bolts, the noise level in the central gap can be significantly attenuated. Theoretical investigation on a 3-dimensional 3D full acoustic model has verified that this method is available. The overall noise level reduction in the central gap is 8.

Future work will be done on the position optimization of the supports of bolts. Solid angle coupled circuit method is proposed for Gz and Gx cylindrical type gradient coils. Actuance calculation was performed to consider the induction effect to a particular subdomain due to eddy currents in the surrounding subdomains.

The degradation of magnetic field inside the materials due to induced antiparallel magnetic moments was also considered in the coupling calculation considering subdomains taken inside the materials. Gradient echo shift experiment was conducted for verification. We found good agreements between simulation and experimental results. MRI acoustic exposure has the potential to elicit physiological distress and impact development in preterm and term infants.

To mitigate the risk, a novel acoustic quiet body coil for a neonatal MR system has been developed to reduce the sound pressure level experienced by neonates during MR procedures. Acoustic characterization demonstrated the quiet coil was consistently quieter, on average of 9 dBA, compared to a conventional body coil.

The quiet coil provides a robust way of attenuating noise that does not require imaging pulse sequence modifications, is patient-independent, and synergistic with other attenuating practices. Winding patterns of gradient coils are often designed using target-field TF methods. However, the TF methods need time-consuming parameter tuning and trial-and-error approach to obtain a desired performance. Moreover, the TF methods ignore the dimensions of winding wires and sometimes lead to unrealizable coils for construction. Here we proposed a simple and straightforward method for designing planar gradient coils with discrete windings, which does not require parameter tuning.

In the proposed scheme, the coil geometric parameters were optimized by an artificial bee colony ABC algorithm. The use of ABC greatly accelerates the design speed, compared with other discrete-wire based methods, and can also provide coil performances comparable with the TF method. The proposed method was used to design gradient coils for a vertical wide-bore superconducting MRI system 4.

Field monitoring using NMR field cameras typically use the gradients for calculating the positions of the field probes.

NSERC – List of Evaluation Groups and Research Topics

However this is under the assumption that the gradients are linear which is certainly not the case. The effect of evaluated gradient imperfections on the estimation of the probes was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the position error on monitoring higher order spherical harmonics was also investigated.

A CT scan of the field camera setup was used to correct for errors in the calculations of the probe position. Matrix coils have recently been introduced for shimming as well as encoding. To reduce costs, a switching circuit can be used to drive clusters of coil elements simultaneously with a reduced number of amplifiers. This work focuses on algorithmic approaches for finding suitable coil element clusters that are able to create an approximation to a desired target field. Haematological Tumours. Health Care Administration. Health Economics. Health Informatics.

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Numerical Computation of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Electrical Engineering)

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    Plant Physiology. Police Administration, Procedures and Practice. Policy and Administration. Political Science. On the other hand, numerical methods can accommodate many practical configurations that analytical methods cannot. With the advent of high-speed digital computers, numerical field computations have finally become practical.

    However, in order to implement numerical methods of field computation, we need algorithms, numerical methods, and mathematical tools that are largely quite different from those that have been traditionally used with analytical methods. Many of these algorithms have, in fact, been presented in the large number of papers that have been published on this subject in the last two decades. And to some of those who are already experienced in the art of numerical field computations, these papers, in addition to their own original work, are enough to give them the knowledge that they need to perform practical numerical field computations.

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